IVF (In-Vitro-Fertilization) Treatment – Process & Procedure
IVF (In vitro fertilization) treatment is the process of bringing the sperm cell and egg cell together in a laboratory environment and exposing them to the fertilization process. As a word, IVF is the abbreviation of the word “in vitro fertilization and expresses the realization of the union of the sperm-egg pair in the laboratory.
Classic IVF and Success
In vitro fertilization treatment (IVF) can be defined as a process that is applied to couples who cannot have children by normal means and should be managed by a specialist team. In particular, raising awareness of the couple about the treatment stages is very important for the success of IVF treatment. Before starting or deciding on the application in question, it should be investigated whether it is possible to become pregnant with simpler methods. There is no need to try IVF in young couples if there is no sperm problem related to the man, and ovulation functions are normal. With ovulation-enhancing methods or Intrauterine Insemination treatment, results can be obtained in a simpler and more affordable way.
The success of classical IVF treatment is increasing day by day. The reason for this happens as a result of many factors progressing in parallel with each other. In other words, in order for IVF treatments to give a successful result, certain conditions must be met.
6 factors that ensure success in IVF treatment
- The selection of experienced IVF centers with a high successful birth rate is an important factor that increases success. In addition, the use of specialist doctors and advanced technological methods also supports success.
- A healthy diet is one of the factors that increase the success of a healthy body.
- Absence of bad habits such as smoking and alcohol means taking one more step towards success.
- Especially the age factor of women is one of the most important factors in IVF treatments. The fact that the mother-to-be has quality eggs means the environment that will ensure the formation of the baby. Since there is a decrease in the function of the egg in advanced ages, treatment should be applied at the age of fertility. If it is delayed, the success rate is very low.
- The support of couples to each other is a very important detail. Having an understanding and patient attitude will bring success.
- Definitely avoid stress. Stress directly affects the baby negatively. We can say that you should avoid and relax yourself.
Who can benefit from IVF treatment?
- People who have been diagnosed with in vitro fertilization (IVF) application
- If both tubes are clogged
- In egg disorders
- In the absence of sperm in the semen
- In sperm quality defect
- In immunological conditions
- In cases where cervical factors are understood
- Those whose tubes were removed in surgery
- Those with insufficient sperm or egg count
- Those with cysts in the ovary that cause infertility
- In hormonal disorders
- Problems with sexual intercourse
- Problems in sperm motility
- Deformity in sperm cells
- In recurrent pregnancy loss
- In case of advanced age of the woman, in vitro fertilization can be applied.
What stages does IVF treatment consist of?
In the candidates who are considered for IVF treatment, the treatment is started on the 2nd or 3rd day of the mother’s menstrual period. On the first day, the mother-to-be is checked by ultrasound. This is because ultrasound can detect if there is a problem in the ovaries and uterus that will prevent starting treatment.
FSH and estrogen levels are evaluated in the blood of the expectant mother. If there is no obstacle to start the treatment of the expectant mother; Considering the age of the expectant mother, the reason for infertility, blood test results and ovarian capacity, the most appropriate treatment method is determined according to the patient. Hormone therapy is started to support egg formation for IVF application. This period is called controlled ovarian stimulation. In this period, ultrasound control is performed at regular intervals to examine the response to treatment and egg development, and the hormone evaluation in the blood is examined.
- Stimulation of the Ovaries
Hormone supplements in the form of injections are started. The reason for this is to stimulate the ovaries on the 3rd day of the new menstrual period. These drugs are used to ensure the development of more than one egg cell from the ovaries. This procedure increases the probability of pregnancy. The duration of stimulation of the ovaries varies according to the patient. The response of the ovaries to the drug used determines the length of this process. Generally, this period varies between 10-12 days. In this period, egg development is followed with the help of hormones and ultrasound every two days.
After the egg cells reach a certain maturity and size, a hormonal needle that helps the eggs to crack is used. Egg collection operation is performed 34-36 hours after the injection. It is very important that this injection is made on time. Egg collection is performed by means of transvaginal ultrasonography under a state called sedation anesthesia, that is, sleepiness. The reason for this is to prevent the patient from feeling pain. The patient is taken in the morning on an empty stomach. The process is completed in approximately 20 to 30 minutes.During this operation, the fluid inside the follicles is collected. Eggs are collected by evaluating whether there are eggs in the liquid. In the first procedure, eggs may not be found in the follicle fluid. In these cases, the inside of the follicle is washed with the help of a special liquid and the eggs that may have remained in the follicle are tried to be found. While the number of eggs per patient may reach 10-12, this number may increase from 1 to 40. Very rarely, the possibility that no eggs may be collected is among the possibilities. After this procedure, the patient is followed for 1-2 hours and then he can go home. The next stage is the selection of the ideal ones among the collected eggs, their fertilization and transfer into the uterus.
- Fertilization of Eggs (Fertilization)
After selecting the good and fertile eggs called MII oocyte obtained by egg collection process, sperm cell quality is checked and fertilization is ensured in the laboratory through classical in vitro fertilization or Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection ICSI. In some cases, it may be more beneficial to use the microinjection method to increase the probability of fertilization. The sperm cell fertilizes the egg cell and the EMBRYO is formed. Fertilized eggs are monitored in a special culture medium until they can be transferred to the uterus of the expectant mother. Good and high quality embryos are selected and transferred into the uterus.
- Embryo Transfer
The transfer of embryos from the laboratory environment to the uterus of the expectant mother is called embryo transfer. This stage is a procedure that does not require anesthesia and the patient will not feel pain. The transfer is carried out 48-72 hours after the egg retrieval and in some cases 120 hours. The timing of the transfer is determined by the number and quality of embryos. Before the transfer, the cervix is cleaned with special liquids. Transfer into the uterus is performed by passing through the cervix with the help of a thin catheter. Embryos left in the uterus after this application are expected to continue to develop on their own from now on and hold on to the uterus.
- Waiting Process
In this process, you should take good care of yourself and your baby, and stay away from all factors that may harm you. You should avoid excessive movements and heavy work. Paying attention to your nutrition is very important for its development and adherence.
You can understand the result of IVF treatment after the pregnancy test, which will be done 2 weeks after the embryo transfer. But in some cases, failures occur. Don’t worry yourself about it. This possibility is not dangerous in the first unsuccessful IVF treatments. You should start the 2nd attempt again by investigating the reasons. There are many couples who have achieved success as a result of this IVF treatment.